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If you want to travel from Iran to Azerbaijan, you have to use a bus. Buy your bus ticket locally in Iran.
To travel from Iran to Turkey by train you have to use several trains today. Until 2015 an Iranian train ran from Tehran to Van and a Turkish one from Tatvan to Ankara. Since June 2018 the journey is now possible again by train.
First travel from Tehran to Tabriz by night train (dep. 19:15 / arr 08:00). Tickets at: rail.shop/iran
In Tabriz change to the train to Van. This train runs only once per week. Departure in Tabriz Monday at 23:30. Arrival in Van on Tuesday at 06:45. The border control is in the middle of the night. Price about Euro 9. Buy your ticket locally or contact: rail.shop/iran
From Van take the ferry to Tatvan. Journey time is about 4 hours. Timetables available locally.
In Tatvan get on the "Vangölü Ekspresi" in direction of Ankara which leaves twice per week on Tuesday an Thursday at 07:00. Journey time to Ankara is about 24 hours. Tickets from Euro 10 on: rail.shop/tcdd
For now it is not possible to reach it and you have two days rest in Tatvan (wait until Thursday). We update the information as soon as the connection is optimized. Option is to continue by bus to Ankara, but not that comfortable.